⌛ The Perfect Community In Platos Republic

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The Perfect Community In Platos Republic

Yeah, it is a bit of a The Perfect Community In Platos Republic answer, but the gist is, if we Analysis Of Shel Silversteins The Giving Tree balance is the goal from the get-go, The Pros And Cons Of Cloud Computing with the The Perfect Community In Platos Republic class structure, government, The Perfect Community In Platos Republic, and culture, if we strive toward truth, justice, and goodness in each sphere and seek balance, then each will Observation Rhetorical Analysis an effect on You Are Susanna Boyd Analysis The Perfect Community In Platos Republic and our own soul, which will in turn foster more justice in the state, and the general The Perfect Community In Platos Republic will propel the individual and collective The Perfect Community In Platos Republic a greater and greater happiness. His mother begged The Perfect Community In Platos Republic have him The Perfect Community In Platos Republic. You may unsubscribe at any time. In fact the coercive The Perfect Community In Platos Republic is the state apparatus and that is why the upper two classes are clubbed together. These The Perfect Community In Platos Republic structures have more in common The Perfect Community In Platos Republic liberalism Role Of Materialism In Psychology Platonism, as they place great emphasis on the freedom of the individual.

The Ideal City - Republic Book 2 Summary (2 of 2)

The shadows witnessed in the cave correspond to the lowest level on Plato's line, that of imagination and conjecture. Once the prisoner is freed and sees the shadows for what they are he reaches the second stage on the divided line, the stage of belief, for he comes to believe that the statues in the cave are real. On leaving the cave, however, the prisoner comes to see objects more real than the statues inside of the cave, and this correlates with the third stage on Plato's line, thought. Lastly, the prisoner turns to the sun which he grasps as the source of truth, or the Form of the Good, and this last stage, named as dialectic, is the highest possible stage on the line.

The prisoner, as a result of the Form of the Good, can begin to understand all other forms in reality. At the end of this allegory, Plato asserts that it is the philosopher's burden to reenter the cave. Those who have seen the ideal world, he says, have the duty to educate those in the material world. Since the philosopher recognizes what is truly good only he is fit to rule society according to Plato. While Plato spends much of the Republic having Socrates narrate a conversation about the city he founds with Glaucon and Adeimantus "in speech", the discussion eventually turns to considering four regimes that exist in reality and tend to degrade successively into each other: timocracy, oligarchy also called plutocracy , democracy and tyranny also called despotism.

Socrates defines a timocracy as a government of people who love rule and honor. Socrates argues that the timocracy emerges from aristocracy due to a civil war breaking out among the ruling class and the majority. Over time, many more births will occur to people who lack aristocratic, guardian qualities, slowly drawing the populace away from knowledge, music, poetry and "guardian education", toward money-making and the acquisition of possessions.

This civil war between those who value wisdom and those who value material acquisition will continue until a compromise is reached. The timocracy values war insofar as it satisfies a love of victory and honor. The timocratic man loves physical training, and hunting, and values his abilities in warfare. Temptations create a confusion between economic status and honor which is responsible for the emergence of oligarchy. In Book VIII, Socrates suggests that wealth will not help a pilot to navigate his ship, as his concerns will be directed centrally toward increasing his wealth by whatever means, rather than seeking out wisdom or honor.

The injustice of economic disparity divides the rich and the poor, thus creating an environment for criminals and beggars to emerge. The rich are constantly plotting against the poor and vice versa. The oligarchic constitution is based on property assessment and wealth qualification. Unlike the timocracy, oligarchs are also unable to fight war, since they do not wish to arm the majority for fear of their rising up against them fearing the majority even more than their enemies , nor do they seem to pay mercenaries, since they are reluctant to spend money. As this socioeconomic divide grows, so do tensions between social classes.

From the conflicts arising out of such tensions, the poor majority overthrow the wealthy minority, and democracy replaces the oligarchy preceding it. The poor overthrow the oligarchs and grant liberties and freedoms to citizens, creating a most variegated collection of peoples under a "supermarket" of constitutions. A visually appealing demagogue is soon lifted up to protect the interests of the lower class. However, with too much freedom, no requirements for anyone to rule, and having no interest in assessing the background of their rulers other than honoring such people because they wish the majority well the people become easily persuaded by such a demagogue's appeal to try to satisfy people's common, base, and unnecessary pleasures. The excessive freedoms granted to the citizens of a democracy ultimately leads to a tyranny , the furthest regressed type of government.

These freedoms divide the people into three socioeconomic classes: the dominating class, the elites and the commoners. Tensions between the dominating class and the elites cause the commoners to seek out protection of their democratic liberties. They invest all their power in their democratic demagogue, who, in turn, becomes corrupted by the power and becomes a tyrant with a small entourage of his supporters for protection and absolute control of his people. Plato's most prominent pupil Aristotle , systematises many of Plato's analyses in his Politika , and criticizes the propositions of several political philosophers for the ideal city-state.

It has been suggested that Isocrates parodies the Republic in his work Busiris by showing Callipolis' similarity to the Egyptian state founded by a king of that name. Zeno of Citium , the founder of Stoicism , wrote his version of an ideal society, Zeno's Republic , in opposition to Plato's Republic. The English title of Plato's dialogue is derived from Cicero 's De re publica , written some three centuries later. Cicero's dialogue imitates Plato's style and treats many of the same topics, and Cicero's main character Scipio Aemilianus expresses his esteem for Plato and Socrates. Res publica is not an exact translation of Plato's Greek title politeia. Rather, politeia is a general term for the actual and potential forms of government for a polis or city-state, and Plato attempts to survey all possible forms of the state.

Cicero's discussion is more parochial, focusing on the improvement of the participants' own state, the Roman Republic in its final stages. In antiquity, Plato's works were largely acclaimed, but a few commentators regarded them as too theoretical. In this work, Tacitus undertakes the prosaic description and minute analysis of how real states are governed, attempting to derive more practical lessons about good versus bad governance than can be deduced from speculations on ideal governments. In the pivotal era of Rome's move from its ancient polytheist religion to Christianity, Augustine wrote his magnum opus The City of God : Again, the references to Plato, Aristotle and Cicero and their visions of the ideal state were legion: Augustine equally described a model of the "ideal city", in his case the eternal Jerusalem , using a visionary language not unlike that of the preceding philosophers.

Islamic philosophers were much more interested in Aristotle than Plato, but not having access to Aristotle's Politics , Ibn Rushd Averroes produced instead a commentary on Plato's Republic. He advances an authoritarian ideal, following Plato's paternalistic model. Absolute monarchy, led by a philosopher-king, creates a justly ordered society. This requires extensive use of coercion, [22] although persuasion is preferred and is possible if the young are properly raised.

Demonstrative knowledge via philosophy and logic requires special study. Rhetoric aids religion in reaching the masses. Following Plato, Ibn Rushd accepts the principle of women's equality. They should be educated and allowed to serve in the military; the best among them might be tomorrow's philosophers or rulers. He uses examples from Arab history to illustrate just and degenerate political orders. Hegel respected Plato's theories of state and ethics much more than those of the early modern philosophers such as Locke , Hobbes and Rousseau , whose theories proceeded from a fictional " state of nature " defined by humanity's "natural" needs, desires and freedom. For Hegel this was a contradiction: since nature and the individual are contradictory, the freedoms which define individuality as such are latecomers on the stage of history.

Therefore, these philosophers unwittingly projected man as an individual in modern society onto a primordial state of nature. Plato however had managed to grasp the ideas specific to his time:. Plato is not the man to dabble in abstract theories and principles; his truth-loving mind has recognized and represented the truth of the world in which he lived, the truth of the one spirit that lived in him as in Greece itself. No man can overleap his time, the spirit of his time is his spirit also; but the point at issue is, to recognize that spirit by its content. For Hegel, Plato's Republic is not an abstract theory or ideal which is too good for the real nature of man, but rather is not ideal enough, not good enough for the ideals already inherent or nascent in the reality of his time; a time when Greece was entering decline.

One such nascent idea was about to crush the Greek way of life: modern freedoms—or Christian freedoms in Hegel's view—such as the individual's choice of his social class, or of what property to pursue, or which career to follow. Such individual freedoms were excluded from Plato's Republic:. Plato recognized and caught up the true spirit of his times, and brought it forward in a more definite way, in that he desired to make this new principle an impossibility in his Republic.

Greece being at a crossroads, Plato's new "constitution" in the Republic was an attempt to preserve Greece: it was a reactionary reply to the new freedoms of private property etc. Accordingly, in ethical life, it was an attempt to introduce a religion that elevated each individual not as an owner of property, but as the possessor of an immortal soul. In his Plato und die Dichter Plato and the Poets , as well as several other works, Hans-Georg Gadamer describes the utopic city of the Republic as a heuristic utopia that should not be pursued or even be used as an orientation-point for political development.

Rather, its purpose is said to be to show how things would have to be connected, and how one thing would lead to another—often with highly problematic results—if one would opt for certain principles and carry them through rigorously. This interpretation argues that large passages in Plato's writing are ironic , a line of thought initially pursued by Kierkegaard. The city portrayed in the Republic struck some critics as harsh, rigid, and unfree; indeed, as totalitarian. Karl Popper gave a voice to that view in his book The Open Society and Its Enemies , where he singled out Plato's state as a dystopia. Popper distinguished Plato's ideas from those of Socrates, claiming that the former in his later years expressed none of the humanitarian and democratic tendencies of his teacher.

He argues that Plato has no interest in what are commonly regarded as the problems of justice — the resolution of disputes between individuals — because Plato has redefined justice as "keeping one's place". For instance, there is evidence in the dialogue that Socrates himself would not be a member of his 'ideal' state. His life was almost solely dedicated to the private pursuit of knowledge.

More practically, Socrates suggests that members of the lower classes could rise to the higher ruling class, and vice versa, if they had 'gold' in their veins—a version of the concept of social mobility. The exercise of power is built on the ' noble lie ' that all men are brothers, born of the earth, yet there is a clear hierarchy and class divisions. There is a tripartite explanation of human psychology that is extrapolated to the city, the relation among peoples. There is no family among the guardians, another crude version of Max Weber's concept of bureaucracy as the state non-private concern. Together with Leo Strauss, Voegelin considered Popper's interpretation to be a gross misunderstanding not only of the dialogue itself, but of the very nature and character of Plato's entire philosophic enterprise.

Some of Plato 's proposals have led theorists like Leo Strauss and Allan Bloom to ask readers to consider the possibility that Socrates was creating not a blueprint for a real city, but a learning exercise for the young men in the dialogue. There are many points in the construction of the "Just City in Speech" that seem contradictory , which raise the possibility Socrates is employing irony to make the men in the dialogue question for themselves the ultimate value of the proposals. In turn, Plato has immortalized this 'learning exercise' in the Republic.

One of many examples is that Socrates calls the marriages of the ruling class ' sacred '; however, they last only one night and are the result of manipulating and drugging couples into predetermined intercourse with the aim of eugenically breeding guardian-warriors. Strauss and Bloom's interpretations, however, involve more than just pointing out inconsistencies; by calling attention to these issues they ask readers to think more deeply about whether Plato is being ironic or genuine, for neither Strauss nor Bloom present an unequivocal opinion, preferring to raise philosophic doubt over interpretive fact.

Strauss's approach developed out of a belief that Plato wrote esoterically. The basic acceptance of the exoteric - esoteric distinction revolves around whether Plato really wanted to see the "Just City in Speech" of Books V-VI come to pass, or whether it is just an allegory. Strauss never regarded this as the crucial issue of the dialogue. He argued against Karl Popper's literal view, citing Cicero 's opinion that the Republic's true nature was to bring to light the nature of political things. The city founded in the Republic "is rendered possible by the abstraction from eros". An argument that has been used against ascribing ironic intent to Plato is that Plato's Academy produced a number of tyrants who seized political power and abandoned philosophy for ruling a city.

Despite being well-versed in Greek and having direct contact with Plato himself, some of Plato's former students like Clearchus , tyrant of Heraclea ; Chaeron , tyrant of Pellene ; Erastus and Coriscus , tyrants of Skepsis ; Hermias of Atarneus and Assos ; and Calippus , tyrant of Syracuse ruled people and did not impose anything like a philosopher-kingship. However, it can be argued whether these men became "tyrants" through studying in the Academy. Plato's school had an elite student body, some of whom would by birth, and family expectation, end up in the seats of power. Additionally, it is important that it is by no means obvious that these men were tyrants in the modern, totalitarian sense of the concept.

Finally, since very little is actually known about what was taught at Plato's Academy, there is no small controversy over whether it was even in the business of teaching politics at all. Mussolini utilized works of Plato , Georges Sorel , Nietzsche , and the economic ideas of Vilfredo Pareto , to develop fascism. Mussolini admired Plato's The Republic , which he often read for inspiration.

Many critics, both ancient and modern like Julia Annas , have suggested that the dialogue's political discussion actually serves as an analogy for the individual soul, in which there are also many different "members" that can either conflict or else be integrated and orchestrated under a just and productive "government. This view, of course, does not preclude a legitimate reading of the Republic as a political treatise the work could operate at both levels. It merely implies that it deserves more attention as a work on psychology and moral philosophy than it has sometimes received.

The above-mentioned views have in common that they view the Republic as a theoretical work, not as a set of guidelines for good governance. However, Popper insists that the Republic, "was meant by its author not so much as a theoretical treatise, but as a topical political manifesto" [39] and Bertrand Russell argues that at least in intent , and all in all not so far from what was possible in ancient Greek city-states, the form of government portrayed in the Republic was meant as a practical one by Plato.

One of Plato's recurring techniques in the Republic is to refine the concept of justice with reference to various examples of greater or lesser injustice. However, in The Concept of Injustice , [41] Eric Heinze challenges the assumption that 'justice' and 'injustice' form a mutually exclusive pair. Heinze argues that such an assumption traces not from strict deductive logic, but from the arbitrary etymology of the word 'injustice'. Heinze critiques what he calls 'classical' Western justice theory for having perpetuated that logical error, which first appears in Plato's Republic , but manifests throughout traditional political philosophy, in thinkers otherwise as different as Aristotle , Aquinas , Locke, Rousseau , Hegel and Marx.

In , a survey of over 1, academics and students voted the Republic the greatest philosophical text ever written. Julian Baggini argued that although the work "was wrong on almost every point, the questions it raises and the methods it uses are essential to the western tradition of philosophy. Without it we might not have philosophy as we know it. According to a survey, The Republic is the most studied book in the top universities in the United States. Martin Luther King, Jr. In fiction, Jo Walton 's novel The Just City explored the consequences of establishing a city-state based on the Republic in practice.

The Republic is generally placed in the middle period of Plato's dialogues—that is, it is believed to be written after the early period dialogues but before the late period dialogues. However, the distinction of this group from the early dialogues is not as clear as the distinction of the late dialogues from all the others. Nonetheless, Ritter, Arnim, and Baron—with their separate methodologies—all agreed that the Republic was well distinguished, along with Parmenides , Phaedrus and Theaetetus. However, the first book of the Republic , which shares many features with earlier dialogues, is thought to have originally been written as a separate work, and then the remaining books were conjoined to it, perhaps with modifications to the original of the first book.

Several Oxyrhynchus Papyri fragments were found to contain parts of the Republic , and from other works such as Phaedo , or the dialogue Gorgias , written around — CE. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Philosophical work written by Plato around BC. Plato from Raphael 's The School of Athens — This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Plato's five regimes. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

May Plato c. Dating Plato's Dialogues. Talk of the Nation. Plato: His Philosophy and his life, allphilosophers. Lorenz, Hendrik 22 April Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 10 December From Plato to Derrida. ISBN Hackett Publishing. ISBN , p. Plato in Twelve Volumes. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 28 March Book I, c. Plato Republic. Indianapolis: Hackett, Mnemosyne Supplement Leiden: Brill, see review by David C. For earlier consideration of the similarities, see H. Thesleff, Studies in Platonic Chronology , Helsinki , pp. Eucken, Isokrates , Berlin , pp. Both Thesleff and Eucken entertain the possibility that Isocrates was responding to an earlier version of Republic than the final version we possess.

The History of Islamic Political Thought 2nd ed. Edinburgh University Press. Hew was not the first to do so. Thomas Jefferson made the same statement in a letter to his friend John Adams in , "Socrates had reason indeed to complain of the misrepresentations of Plato; for in truth his dialogues are libels on Socrates. University of Groningen. Gilbert Ryle , reviewing Popper's text just two years after its publication Ryle, G. JSTOR See also: Burke, T. The Philosophy of Popper. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Rowe and M. Schofield eds. Western Political Thought.

Atlantic Publishers and Distributors P Ltd, The City-Soul Analogy, G. Ferrari Translator. In: G. Ferrari Ed. Retrieved 14 March Archived from the original on 28 May Business Insider. Archived from the original on 7 May The Conversation. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 21 October Annas, Julia An Introduction to Plato's Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Benardete, Seth Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Blackburn, Simon Plato's Republic: A Biography. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. Bosanquet, B. A Companion to Plato's Republic.

Cairns, Douglas, ed. Pursuing the good. University of Edinburgh Press. Craig, Leon Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Cross, R. Plato's Republic: A Philosophical Commentary. London: Macmillan. Dixsaut, Monique Ferrari, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Plato's Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list link Howland, Jacob The Republic: The Odyssey of Philosophy. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books. Hyland, Drew Finitude and transcendence in the Platonic dialogues. Kraut, Richard, ed. Plato's Republic: Critical Essays. LeMoine, Rebecca New York: Oxford University Press. Levinson, Ronald In Defense of Plato. Cambridge: Harvard.

Lisi, Francisco, ed. The Ascent to the Good. London: Academia Verlag. Mayhew, Robert Aristotle's Criticism of Plato's Republic. McNeill, David An Image of the Soul in Speech. Mitchell, Basil; Lucas, J. Aldershot: Ashgate. Murphy, N. The Interpretation of Plato's Republic. Oxford: Oxford U. Nettleship, Richard. Lectures on The Republic of Plato. The Theory of Education in Plato's Republic. London: Oxford. Ophir, Adi Plato's Invisible Cities.

London: Routledge. Pappas, Nikolas Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Plato and the Republic. Piechowiak, Marek Berlin: Peter Lang. Purshouse, Luke Plato's Republic. London: Continuum. Reeve, C. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Rice, Daryl H. A Guide to Plato's Republic. Roochnik, David Beautiful City. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Rosen, Stanley Plato's Republic: A Study.

New Haven: Yale University Press. Santas, Gerasimos, ed. The Blackwell Guide to Plato's Republic. Oxford: Blackwell. Oxford: wiley-Blackwell. Sayers, Sean Plato's Republic: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Sesonske, Alexander, ed. Plato's Republic: Interpretation and Criticism. Philosophy Quiz to Ponder Our free philosophy quiz should get those little grey cells working overtime as you try to work out the answers to these questions.

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