✯✯✯ Essay On Parol Evidence Rule
Along with a number of other critics, Adolf Hitler Rhetorical Analysis in a series of Essay On Parol Evidence Rule Lord Denning MR proposed that English law ought to abandon its rigid attachment to offer and acceptance in favour of a broader rule, that the parties need to be in substantial agreement on the Essay On Parol Evidence Rule points in the contract. Nash v Inman Essay On Parol Evidence Rule 2 KB 1. In The Essay On Parol Evidence Rule Lord Reid's inventive solution was applied where some Essay On Parol Evidence Rule similarly Essay On Parol Evidence Rule the benefit of an exclusion clause after Essay On Parol Evidence Rule a drilling machine, Essay On Parol Evidence Rule consideration being found as the stevedores performing their pre-existing contractual duty for the benefit of the third party the drilling machine owner. Article 19 provides as Essay On Parol Evidence Rule " 1 A reply to an main religion in malaysia which purports to be Essay On Parol Evidence Rule acceptance but contains additions, limitations or other modifications is a rejection Essay On Parol Evidence Rule the offer and constitutes a counter-offer. At this writing it contains over 8, citations.
Parol Evidence Rule Flow Chart Analysis
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But what they have in common is their high level of language skills and academic writing skills. We understand that you expect our writers and editors to do the job no matter how difficult they are. That's why we take the recruitment process seriously to have a team of the best writers we can find. Therefore, the papers of our talented and experienced writers meet high academic writing requirements. There are competing models used to explain criminal justice admin istration. The Canadian criminal justice system is an adversarial system, which may place certain persons at a disadvantage.
The flow of cases through the criminal justice system can be depicted by a funnel. A key feature of the criminal justice system is the exercise of discretion. Criminal justice personnel carry out their responsibilities in variety of task environments. It is important that criminal justice personnel be held to ethical standards and are accountable, although some officials in the criminal justice system are subject to more oversight than others. It is essential that the public have confidence in the criminal justice system.
The criminal justice system can be significantly impacted by politics. There is some question as to whether the criminal justice system is effective in meetings its objectives. Restorative justice presents an alternative framework for responding to persons in conflict with the law. Identify the components of the criminal justice system. Why is the Constitution Act, important in the study of Canadian criminal justice, and what responsibilities does it assign for criminal justice?
Compare and contrast the crime control and clue process models of criminal justice administration. What is meant by the criminal justice system as an adversarial system? Define the concept of beyond a reasonable doubt. What is discretion, and what role does it play in the criminal justice system? What is a task environment in criminal justice, and why is this concept important in the study of criminal justice?
Define ethics and note its role in the criminal justice system. What is meant by evidence-based practices in the criminal justice system? Define the concept of restorative justice and then compare its principles with those of the adversarial system of c rimin al justice. Your Thoughts? Can you think of others? What challenges might be encountered in determining the effectiveness of the criminal justice system? Rate each of the following potential goals and values on a sca le of 1 to 7, with 1 being" ot Important" and 7 being "Important.
How did your ranking compare to those of your classmates? Was there any consensus on the primary goals and values of the justice system? How did your and your classmates' rankings compare to those of 4, Canadians th at were presented in Figure 2. What might be the source of differences between you and your classmates' rankings and those of the respondents in the Canada-wide survey? Source: Ekos Research Associates. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada, p. Ottawa: Department of Justice, p. Annual Report, Winnipeg: Author, p 3. Reprinted by permission of the Winnipeg Police Service.
In addition, there are private security services and parapolice services. The latter are generall y staffed by officers with special constable status. These include the Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service and the Canadian ational Railway Police Service which carry out policing roles for their respective organizations , as well as transit police forces, whic h provide security and protection for property and passengers in major urban centres such as Montreal , Toronto, and Vancouver. There are also other law enforcement and security agencies, including the Canada Border Services Agency CBSA , whose officers are armed; the Canadian Security Intelligence Service C SIS ; and the Communications Security Establishment C SE , which focuses on collecting foreign signals intelligence, protecting computer networks, and providing assistance to federal law enforcement and security agencies.
The rest of the province is policed, under contract, by the RCMP. In the Greater Vancouver Region, some municipalities are policed by municipal police services, while others are policed under contract by the RCMP. Concerns about the extent to which the municipal and RCMP detachments in the area effectively communicate with one another and address the challenges of organized crime and gang violence, among other issues, have led to calls for a regional police service.
Canadian police services vary greatly in size and in terms of the areas for which they are responsible. At one encl of the scale, there are three-officer RCMP detachments in many remote northern communities, such as the community oflgloolik in unavut; at the other, there are thousands of officers in the urban centres of Toronto and Montreal. Contract policing An arrangement whereby the RCMP and provincial police forces provide provincial and municipal policing services. Each division is headed by a commanding officer. R provides the framework for the force's operations.
As the federal police force in all provinces and territories, the RCMP enforces most federal statutes and the provisions of various legislative acts. The officers are then deployed across the country in detachments. This makes the RCMP a truly national police force. Until recently, RCMP officers, unlike their municipal and provincial police counterparts, were not allowed to form a union.
Canada, SCC 1 held that the ban on RCMP officers having a union was unconstitutional and gave officers the right to collective bargaining. The RCMP is involved in a broad range of policing activities, including federal policing, contract policing at the provincial and municipal levels, and international peacekeeping. One result of the broad range of policing activities of the RCMP is that its resources and capacities are often overextended, and observers have questioned whether the RCMP has sufficient resources to deliver policing services effectively on all of these fronts.
Some observers thus argue that the RCMP is "in" but not "of' the communities they police, and that it is often difficult to ensure that RCMP detachments are responsive to the community's priorities and requirements. Provincial police forces are responsible for policing rural areas and the areas outside municipalities and cities. They enforce provincial laws as well as the Criminal Code.
Some municipalities in Ontario are policed under contract by the OPP. Outside Ontario and Quebec and certain parts of ewfoundland and Labrador, the RCMP provides provincial policing under contract with provincial governments. When the RCMP acts as a provincial police force, it has full jurisdiction over the Criminal Code as well as provincial laws. Today, a number of regional police services, including the Peel Regional Police the largest regional police force in Canada and the Halton Regional Police, provide policing services to more than 50 percent of Ontarians.
There are only two regional police forces west of Ontario: the Dakota Ojibway Police Service, in Manitoba, and the Lakeshore Regional Police Service, an Indigenous police force that provides services to five First ations in northern Alberta. Proponents of regional policing contend that it is more effective at providing a full range of policing services to communities and is less expensive than having a number of independent municipal departments. Critics of regional policing argue that, with the exception of Indigenous regional police services, this arrangement is too centralized and does not offer the opportunity for effective community policing.
Municipal police officers enforce the Criminal Code, provincial statutes, and municipal bylaws, as well as certain federal statutes such as the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act S. Most police work is performed by services operating at this level. A municipality can provide police services in one of three ways: by creating its own independent police service; by joining with another municipality's existing police force, which often means involving itself with a regional police force; or by contracting with a provincial police force-the OPP in Ontario, the RCMP in the rest of Canada except Quebec.
The Toronto Police Service has more than 5, officers; at the other end of the spectrum, some remote communities are policed by detachments of only one or two officers. Municipalities with their own policing services generally assume the costs of those services, which are sometimes underwritten by the provincial government. A notable trend in Ontario has been a decline in the number of independent municipal police services in favour of contracting with the OPP, although in recent years, a number of municipalities have explored the potential of re-establishing municipal police services in order to reduce costs.
It is in the area of policing that they have assumed the greatest control over the delivery of justice services. One objective is to provide police services that are more integrated into Indigenous communities. Since , governments and Indigenous communities have negotiated agreements for police services that best meet their needs. Funding for Indigenous police forces is split between the province and the federal government.
The activities of autonomous Indigenous police forces are overseen by reserve-based police commissions or by the local band council. There are smaller Indigenous police forces in other provinces. Indigenous police officers generally have full powers to enforce on reserve lands the Criminal Code, federal and provincial statutes, and band bylaws. The Supreme Court has held that Indigenous police constables in Ontario have "territorial jurisdiction" that is not confined to the territorial boundaries of the reserve R. DeCorte,  1 SCR 13 3.
Officers in Indigenous police services may play an even more multifaceted role than police officers in more populated areas of the country. Commenting on this, and on the social issues facing man y Indigenous communities, the police chief in an Indigenous police service in Quebec noted, "Being a police officer in the north, you're the ambulance driver, the undertaker, the social worker. You name it, we've done it. I've even been a Dr. Phil at times. Canadian police scholars have argued that the F PP, under which w a: Indigenous police services operate, was "set up to fail. Most police services have a chief constable, one or more deputy chief constables, superintendents, and inspectors often referred to as commissioned officers, although they are not actually commissioned , and non-commissioned officers, including staff sergeants, sergeants, corporals, detectives, and constables.
There are two main types of private security: security firms that sell their services to businesses, industries, private residences, and neighbourhoods; and alternatively, companies that employ their own in-house security officers. Across Canada, a number of communities have hired private security firms to provide hour security patrols. Generally, private security personnel have no more legal authority than ordinary citizens to enforce the law or protect property. However, private security officers can arrest and detain people who commit crimes on private property. Recent court cases suggest that private security personnel must adhere to the provisions in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms only when making an arrest.
Private security officers outnumber police officers by four to one in Canada and are engaged in a wide range of activities, including crowd control, protecting businesses and property including shopping malls and college and university campuses , and conducting investigations for individuals and businesses. In some venues, such as sporting events and concerts, private security officers and police officers may work in collaboration. In recent yea rs, the total number of police officers in Canada has declined, wh ile the number of priva te security officers has continued to increase.
There are many instances in which public police work in collaboration with private security. It is likely that there will be increasing integration of public police and private security in the future. The officers function mainly as technical advisers and instruct local police forces in new policing strategies. There has been considerable debate around the effectiveness of these deployments, with some observers arguing that the impact of the officers is minimal and that the missions are mounted in order to "show the flag" -that is, to raise the profile of the Canadian government overseas. Among the difficulties that have been identified are the lack of pre-deployment training for officers being sent on peacekeeping missions and the fact that Canadian officers are often part of a multinational force of police officers, among whom there is wide disparity in both skills and level of professionalism.
The rates of crime and the types of calls to which the police respond depend on the specific community environment in which police officers carry out their work. Some communities present more demands and challenges than others. More serious calls for service may require patrol officers to remain at the scene for longer periods of time. Although priority 1 calls the most serious are often less than 10 percent of the calls received by a police service, the time spent by officers on-scene and in the subsequent investigation may be very time- and resource-intensive. The complexity of crime has also continued to increase.
Many forms of criminal activity are highly sophisticated and involve international criminal syndicates that require costly and time-consuming investigations. These syndicates engage in such transnational criminal activities as human trafficking, money laundering, and drug smuggling. The emergence of cybercrime has also challenged police services to develop new capacities for surveillance. Bylaw complaint 9, 58 minutes 3.
Unwanted person 6, 1 hour, 17 minutes 4. Domestic dispute 5, 1 hour, 32 minutes 6. Driving complaint 4, 1 hour, 49 minutes 8. Dispute 3, 2 hours, 31 minutes 3, 2 hours, 32 minutes 1. Compassionate to locate Reprinted with permission of the Waterloo Regional Police Service. Even with the cutbacks in policing budgets, police services are competing for qualified candidates. People who are interested in a career in policing must have both basic qualifications and preferred qualifications.
The basic qualifications include Canadian citizenship although some departments consider permanent residents , a minimum age of 19 the average age of police recruits in many cleparh11ents is over 25 , physical fitness, and a grade 12 education. Also, the applicant cannot have any prior criminal convictions or pending charges, and must exhibit common sense and good judgment. Ontario has stanclarclizecl the criteria for assessing prospective applicants through its Constable Selection System, which is used by most of the province's police services.
Prospective recruits fi le one application, which is then vetted through this system. This system has clone away with multiple applications to several police services and consequent dup lication of the assessment effort. A challenge is to develop measures to assess the validity of the criteria used to select and train police recruits, and to determine whether the attributes of police recruits have an impact on their performance during their policing careers.
A key issue is how these are either enhanced or modified by their experience in the training academy. Preferred qualifications for police candidates Requirements that increase the competitiveness of applicants seeking employment in policing. Canadian police services are making efforts to increase the diversity in their ranks. There has been, for example, a steady increase in the number of women officers, although in , women still comprised only 21 percent of all sworn police officers. There has also been a significant increase nationally in the number of women at the higher ranks of police services: 13 percent in , as compared to 6 percent in Women and Policing in Canada: A vices to reflect the gender and cultural and ethnic diversity of the Status Brief and Discussion Paper.
Winnipeg: Author, p. Reprinted by permission of Copyright, Manitoba Government. Many police services have developed special initiatives and programs to attract qualified visible minority and Indigenous recruits. Also, tl1e Edmonton Police Service operates a mentorship academy to encourage women, Indigenous people, and members of visible minority and diverse communities to apply to the force. The session academy is taught by members of the police service and includes such topics as leadership, interpersonal skills, and public speaking. Once it's reflected in your teammates, it just means you have more experience and knowledge to draw from. Whatever kind of background you come from, whether you're female or you're from a racial minority or any of those kinds of diversities, people really appreciate it.
It makes the job a lot easier when you have someone with different skill sets, whether you're more sensitive to certain calls and you can find yourself handling them and just build a rapport better with certain communities, it's just great, awesome to have. Source: C. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. Marcoux, K. Nicholson, V. Kubinec, and H. A study conducted in found that only in Halifax was the diversity in the police service reflective of that in the community: The underrepresentation of Indigenous and minority group persons is most pronounced in Quebec: Montreal is four times more diverse than the SPVM, and in Sherbrooke, Quebec City, and Gatineau, fewer than 1 percent of police officers are Indigenous or from a minority group.
Some observers have argued that, while increasing the diversity of police services is important, it is equally important to focus on changing the culture of the police. Sanely Hudson, the co-founder of Black Lives Matter in Toronto, states, "I don't know whether or not more racializecl faces on the police force is going to [bring about change]. There has to be a real commitment to changing policy, to changing structure, and to changing the institution as a whole, otherwise these issues don't really get solved. There are several different models of police training in Canada.
Municipal police recruits may be trained "in house," at a residential or non-residential training academy, or at a combination of both. In British Columbia, recruits in municipal police services are sent to the Justice Institute of British Columbia, a non-residential facility, where they complete a three-block training course. Police recruits generally receive instruction in the law, community relations, methods of patrol and investigation, and firearms handling. They are also provided with driver training and physical training. Having completed this training, the recruits are usually assigned to general patrol duties for three to five years. Thereafter, they are el igible to apply to specialty units. Besides providing knowledge and sk ills, training academies provide a mechanism for socializing new recruits into the occupation of policing.
Far too little attention has been paid by police scholars to the experiences of police recruits in training programs as they are transformed into police constables, and to how these experiences shape their attitudes, expectations, and behaviour. Most police recruits are motivated, at least initially, by a desire to help people and serve the community. The training experience can have a strong impact on this, however. Research sh1dies have found that, for many recruits, the police academy experience makes them more cynical, more suspicious of people, and, generally, more vigilant.
There are attributes of the police academy that do not fit well with the principles of community policing, including a hierarchical, paramilitary structure that encourages an "us versus them" mentality, deference to authority, and the development of strong bonds and in-group loyalty among recruits. The extent to which these features of the police academy experience have hindered the implementation of community policing has yet to be researched in Canada. As well , little is known about the relevance and impact of academy training once recruits are assigned to operational patrol.
Under tl1e guidance and assistance of a field training officer FTO , the recruit is exposed to a wide variety of general police work. During this critical phase, the specially trained senior officer often referred to as the field trainer or mentor makes sure tl1at the recruit is able to meet the demands and challenges of police work. Police services are paying increasing attention to ensuring continuity between the training a recruit receives in the academy and tl1e supervision provided once the new recruit is involved in operational policing. FTOs play a significant role in th e training process and have a strong influence on the attitude and policing style that the new recruit develops.
A key objective of the FTO is to enhance the skills and knowledge the recru it has gained at the academy in a way that lessens the "disconnect" between the training academy and the street. This will reduce the likel ihood that the new officer will become cynical and discard the skill sets and attitudes learned in recruit training. As the former director of a police training academy stated, "Some outstanding booksmart recruits struggle on the street, and others that struggle in the academy do well CHAPTER 4: The Structure and Roles of the Police 89 on the street.
Until you actually get new officers out on the street, it's difficult to tell how they are going do to, how they are going to interact and handle encounter situations. This concept is used to explain how the police view their role and the world around them. It was first identified and defined by the criminologist Jerome Skolnick, who wrote, "The police, as a result of the combined features of their social situation, tend to develop ways oflooking at the world distinctive to themselves, cognitive lenses through which to see situations and events. It is argued that, as a consequence of these personality attributes, many police officers tend to view policing as a career and a way of life, rather than merely a nine-to-five job; value secrecy and practise a code of silence to protect fellow officers; and exhibit strong in-group solidarity-often referred to as the blue wallowing to job-related stresses, shift work, and an "us versus them" division between police and non-police.
As well , police officers may exhibit attitudes, often referred to as the blue light syndrome, that emphasize the high-risk, high-action component of Working personality of the police A set of attitudinal and behavioural attributes that develops as a consequence of the unique role and activities of police officers. One of the most significant developments has been the emergence of community policing, a model of policing centred on police-community partnerships that bring officers into close contact with community residents in a wide range of crime prevention and response activities. Various community policing strategies can succeed in reducing the distance and distrust between the police and the communities they serve. These and other changes in the activities of the police have led to the suggestion that the "us [police] versus them [public]" dichotomy is much too general and that it fails to account for the wide variety of relationships that exist between the public and the police, as well as the differences among police officers themselves with respect to how the police role is carried out.
For example, it encourages camaraderie and trust among police officers, helps individual officers cope with the more stressful aspects of police work, and is a source of general support. The blue wall of silence may also be an obstacle to addressing the health and wellness of police officers, discussed below. The challenges of police work are illustrated by the prevalence of occupational stress injuries and the issues surrounding the sexual harassment of women officers. Although police work can be satisfying and challenging, it can also be stressful. The effects of stress experienced by police officers range from minor an noya nces which can be managed to alcohol or drug addiction and suicide.
Studies have also found that officers with high stress levels are more susceptible to engaging in misconduct. Any of my anger or discomfort, I would yell at them, I would blame my wife for everything. The mental stress I had downloaded on my family. They had to carry me and they took the brunt of all my behaviors [a t home and then I would go to work, I put the uniform on and put on a show and made it look like I was okay and continue and make sure no one kn ew.
NEL and a perceived lack of support from supervising officers may exacerbate the stressors in a police officer's operational environment. Remote and rural communities often have much higher rates of crime-especially violent crime-than urban centres. Policing in these h igh-demand environments, where backup may not be readily available, can take a toll on officers. In recognition of this, officers are generally posted to these isolated locations for no more than two or three years. Officers who are involved in critical incidents, such as a shooting, or who are exposed to extreme violence, individual suffering, and death may develop post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , an extreme form of critical incident stress that includes nightmares, hypervigilance, intrusive thoughts, and other forms of psychological distress.
The study found the following: sure to traumatic events. Source: R. Carleton, T. Afifi, s. Turner, T. Taillieu, s. Duranceau, D. Advance online publication. A study of the health and wellness of officers in a large urban police service found that the officers employed a variety of coping strategies to deal with the stressors in their work. These included constructive self-help coping strategies, such as speaking with loved ones, exercising, and bringing humour to otherwise difficult situations; destructive self-help coping strategies, including excessive use of alcohol; and seeking professional help.
Years ago, he shot and killed a man who attempted to murder two fellow officers. The incident left him with nightmares and hypervigilance symptoms. He also had to face the internal and external investigations that accompany such incidents, as well as a civil lawsuit by the deceased's family. Fortunately, he had a supportive detachment commander who made the necessary arrangements for him and his wife to see the OPP Staff Psychologist, afforded him time away from work, and encouraged him to file a WSIB claim. Soon after the shooting, Officer David was referred to a community psychologist who diagnosed him with post-traumatic stress disorder.
However, his treatment was short-lived, and he once again found himself back at work in "suck it up" mode. Memories of the shooting and uncontrollable bouts of crying continued to plague him. But this 92 Part II: The Police time, he responded by avoiding his family, burying himself in work, and drinking alcohol to numb the pain and sleep at night.
After years of struggling for control, he became suicidal and was hospitalized. He went on a long-term leave from work, obtained WSIB benefits, and underwent treatment. Like others in his position who have been steeped in the police culture, he was embarrassed to find himself suffering from mental illness. While many of those we spoke to expressed frustration with the return-to-work process and the lack of meaningful work available to individuals recovering from operational stress injury, Officer David was able to return to work successfully, in a rewarding position.
Source: A. In the Line of Duty. Toronto: Ombudsman of Ontario, p. Reprinted by permission of the Office of the Ombudsman of Ontario. As one officer stated, "There is still ve much an attitude of 'If you can't handle it you should quit. Cops were to be tough. If they dared go to a supervisor or colleague with such a problem, they may have been told to "suck it up. Thankfully, that's no longer the case. We have learned much about posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD during the last three decades and policing has come to terms with how it affects our profession. Evidence that the stigma associated with seeking help may be decreasing is reflected in the doubling of the number of officers in the Toronto Police Service seeking assistance for psychological issues during the years to Yes, there may have been a boys' club mentality back in the day, but I have never experienced it.
I've had nothing but positive experiences here. In terms of if I was treated any differently by anybody, I think I would see more of the sensitive calls th at were dispatched. Perhaps, if somebody came in and th ey wanted to speak with a female, I was the default female. In terms of the guys on my squad, they were fantastic, they were great, they welcomed me. I always felt like they had my back, always, and not just because I was a female but because I was part of the squad. Heather McWilliam alleges she was "humiliated and segregated" over nearly eight years as a constable at 23 Division, including being called "degrading names" such as "c--t, bitch and dyke.
Heather McW1ll1am says she heard sexual or sexist comments every single shift during her seven years in the Toronto Police Service. There were other jokes about masturbation and oral sex, McWilliam alleges, and she says a superior officer once passed around photos, taken from Facebook, of her and other female officers in bikinis. Female officers who come forward with complaints are considered "rats" and not "team players," Hughes said, which is particularly concerning for police officers who rely on each other for protection on the job. Filing complaints is a "career ender" for female officers, Hughes argued, and many who do are pushed to settle outside court, which keeps the allegations private.
Reprinted by permission of the publisher b Trevor Dunn, Reprinted by permission of CBC. As on e offi cer told th e C CRC inquiry: I am afraid that I will be unjustly disciplined by being suspended witl1out pay, of being charged witli a Code of Conduct violation, or being disciplined by the Force and losing my employment and my career-all because I came fo rwa rd witl1 what [ have endured. Th e exte nt to whi ch ha rass m ent is an iss u e in police services m ay depe nd in large m easure on th e c ulture of th e individual p olice service, whi ch , in turn , is highl y influ en ced by th e seni or leade rship. This is re fl ected in th e exp eri en ces of th e wome n offi ce rs presented in Poli ce F il e 4.
M ode rn policing developed in E ngland in th e ea rl y s, and a number of 94 Part II: The Police NEL key principles of policing were identified that provide the basis for policing in contemporary times. Community self-policing in early Canada gradually gave way to organized police services, and today policing is carried out at the federal, provincial, municipal, and Indigenous levels. It was noted that there has been a pluralization of policing, wherein the public and private police share responsibility for the safety and security of communities.
The challenges of policing in a democratic society, which centre on maintaining order while ensuring individual rights, were discussed as was the police role in contemporary society I and the efforts of police services to more accurately reRect the diversity of the communities they police. There has been an increasing focus on the health and wellness of I I police officers and on the experiences of women police officers who may experience sexual harassment and discrimination in the workplace. The first full-time police force was created in London in by Sir Robert Peel who set out a number of principles that still apply to policing. Early municipal police forces in Canada had a mandate to police conflicts between groups, to maintain moral standards, and to apprehend criminals.
It is by historical accident that the RCMP is today involved in federal, provincial, and municipal policing. The four levels of policing in Canada are federal, provincial, municipal , and Indigenous communities. The RCMP has a number of distinct features, including training all of its recruits in a central location prior to their deployment across the country. There has been a rapid growth in private security services. In a democratic society, there are natural tensions between the power and authority of the police and the values and processes that exist in a democratic society.
The structures of police governance include police acts, policing standards, and police boards and commissions. Traditionally, the police role has been categorized into crime control, order maintenance, and service, although in current times this may not capture the complexity of the police role. Police services have developed a number of programs to increase their diversity. There are a variety of models across the country for training police recruits. The various pressures and demands placed on police officers contribute to what researchers have called the working personality of the police, although there is some evidence to suggest that there has been some erosion in the "us versus them" mentality of the police. Police officers encounter challenges related to their profession , as illustrated by the prevalence of occupational stress injuries and the experiences of women police officers in the workplace.
Define policing. What is meant by the pluralization of policing? Define and contrast the social contract perspective and the radical perspective on the role of the police. What is meant by political policing? Discuss the role of police acts, policing standards, and police boards and commissions in police governance. Describe the components of core policing. Define contract policing. Identify the basic qualifications and preferred qualifications for police candidates required by police services in the recruitment process. Define the working personality of the police and identify its components. Discuss operational stress injuries and how they may be manifested in police officers.
What is post-traumatic stress disorder and what are some of its symptoms? What is your assessment of this recruiting video? In your view, does it accurately reflect what the police do? What topics, if any, are missing from the video? The number of private security officers in Canada continues to increase. Proponents of private security contend that increasing and expanding the role of private security provides a way to control policing costs, while at the same time ensuring public safety and security. A key argument that is offered in support of the expansion of private security is economic: that subcontracting services to private security firms provides an opportunity to save money. What is your view on private security?
Should there be limi ts on what private security officers can do? Where do you most frequently see private security officers? Should cost be the primary consideration as to whether the role of private security should be expanded? Clarke and C. Ottawa: Law Commission of Canada, p. Polite Ire. Jochelson, K. Kramer, and M. Black Point, S: Fernwood Publishing, p. Whitaker, G. Kealey, and A. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. NEL 7. Portland, OR: Willan Publishing. Law Commission of Canada. Mill er and J. Ethical Issues in Policing. Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal fu stice. Learning, p. Miller and Blackler, Ethical Issues in Policing. Danger," Montreal Gazette. Kiedrowski, N. Jones, and R. Latimer, D. Rabouin, Z.
Cao, A. Ly, G. Powell, T. Montgomery and C. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada, p. Ismaili, UJ. Sprott, and K. Varma , , Toronto: Oxford University Press, p. Canadian Police Work 4th ed. Toronto: Nelson. Juliani, C. Talbot, and C. Griffiths, Canadian Police Work. Police Resources in Canada Statistics Canada Catalogue no. Ottawa: Minister of Industry. Greenland and S. Griffiths and. Policing in Winnipeg: An Operational Review. Ottawa: Canadian Police Association. Communications Security Establishment. I Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. Toronto: Boheme Press. Dupont and S. This information was reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Ganada, Reprinted with permission.
One-chance statutory release A release option whereby offenders who violate the conditions of a statutory release are required to serve the remainder of their sentence in confinement. Release plan A plan setting out the residential, educational, and treatment arrangements made for an inmate who is applying for conditional release. Community assessment An evaluation of the feasibility of the release plan, the level of supervision required, and the availability of community resources.
NEL institutional parole offi cers prepare release plans and other materials that will be used by parole boa rds in their delibera tions. T he release plan contains in fo rmation about where the prospecti ve parolee will live, empl oyment prospects, and any arrangements fo r community-based support such as residence in a halfway house or residential drug treatmen t facility. Release plans must be ve tted by probation or parole offi cers in the communi ty into which the offender will be released. A key component of th e release plan is the community assessment. Prepared by the probation or parole offi cer, this report evaluates the feasibili ty of the offender's proposed communi ty plan in terms of the level of supervision required and the availability of com mu nity reso urces.
Parole board me mbers use the information contained both in the release plan and the communi ty assessm ent to determine whether an inmate should be granted a conditional release and, if so, the special conditions that should be attac hed to it. An offender who presents littl e risk of reoffending would typically have a favo urable background and no previous c riminal convictions.
Offenders who present a high risk must demonstrate that they have taken steps to address those aspects of th eir lives that wo uld increase the likelih ood of reoffending. However, as discussed later in the chapter, CHAPTER Release, Re-entry, and Reintegration the general nature of the conditional release provisions gives parole board members a considerable amount of discretion in deciding whether to grant or deny parole. Pre-release planning is an important part of the inmate's correctional plan and is directed toward managing the risk posed by offenders and, ideally, providing access to programs and services in the community.
This hinders successful reintegration into the community upon release. These inmates tend to be released in gradual stages, beginning with escorted or unescorted temporary absences. Long-term studies have shown that offenders who are gradually released from prison on conditional release are more likely to become law-abiding citizens than those offenders who stay in prison until the encl of their sentence. Figure The data in Figure This does not mean that only 10 percent of offenders on conditional release commit new offences.
Reproduced with the permission of Correctional Service Canada. It would be useful as well to develop recidivism profiles and to identify the factors that are associated with the length of time the offender was on. They provide support for sex offenders who are released from fed eral institutions at warrant expiry or whose period of supervision on conditional release has ended through warrant expiry.
See Figure These offenders are the most likely targets of judicial recognizances and community notification CN. Any offender who participates in the program does so on a voluntary basis; no legal mechanism can compel an offender to be subject to monitoring. COSAs are centred on the principles of restorative justice, including the importance of positive relationships that can faci litate positive change in the offender while at the same time addressing the injury caused to the victim and th e community. Volunteers can include teachers, social workers, police officers, businesspeople, and other community residents. They help with all facets of reintegration, including housing, employment, budgeting and financial management, spiritual development, and moral support.
The offender may call only in times of stress or may have daily contact with the circle members. Circle members can also mediate between the offender and the community. Mediation took place in the case of Joe, whose arrival in the community was the subject of a community notification. See Corrections File Where am I going to find a quiet place to As we began to go around the circle, the first person began by saylive? It was to attend such a meeting. Ann outlined the questions she had heard his eighth conviction. Joe wanted to come to our city for several reasons.
He knew us, he the others discussing with her. There was a long list of questions: they had met public resistance in another town when he attempted to settle wanted to know what had happened, what the sentence was, what treatment he had obtained, and what treatment he planned to receive there before his parole was [revoked], and he suspected that he could now that he was released. We agreed to help him find accommoway to avoid the behaviour you were charged with?
We thought of people that we knew who could the community? Appreciation us. We also agreed to make contact with the police. There had been a lot of negative publicity tion and was planning to arrange suitable community-based therapy recently about released prisoners reoffending, and they didn't want and had indeed made arrangements for that already. He had also set any of that kind of publicity for their department. We talked, and the earlier tension in the room eased as we got on The media descended upon us because we had been identified with the task of problem-solving around the various issues at hand. After a number of angry and threatening meeting, there was a feeling of accomplishment and a readiness to phone calls, we finally bought a telephone answering machine.
The police mounted a plan of surveillance. They felt sure he would Out of that meeting and others we had, some bridges were built. They were concerned about the safety Neighbourhood residents, some of whom were vocally angry, began to of the children in the neighbourhood, but they also wanted to ensure see Joe as a person and recognized the difficulties with which he coped. Joe's safety. Throughout this time, Joe's Circle of Support met regularly with One of the neighbours had called the police and had a lengthy him. At least one of the Circle Members contacted him every day. After discussion with the detective. She later called to talk with me. Ann had small children and was very concerned for their safety and that of the a year, we still talk to him daily.
We took him to do his laundry, to shop many other children living in the area. After a discussion with her, and for groceries and furnishings for his apartment. Lengthy negotiations ensued, finally resulting in a meeting Without the patient, humorous, understanding commitment of the proposed in a neutral site, and several other neighbours were invited to detectives with whom we dealt most frequently, our efforts might participate. The police detectives would also be present. They would be not have reached this point. They came to our Circle meetings. They there not only as a resource, but also as people who could add to the checked in with us frequently and we trusted their openness with us.
Similarly, the police served as a buffer with the community, correcting Joe, accompanied by two of his friends, was the first to arrive at rumours and diffusing problems. Soon the Joe's life has settled into a comfortable pattern. He maintains a neighbours began to arrive. Then the detectives entered. The ground clean, comfortable apartment and has developed some close relationrules of the meeting were outlined. We would go around the circle to ships. He is finding ways to spend his time and is slowly developing a allow everyone an opportunity to share their first name and a particular small network of friends, although trust takes a long time.
If you had been asked to become a member of Joe's CoSA, would and from there we would move to addressing the issues presented. Why or why not? Only one person at a time would speak, and they would follow our direction and instructions for the orderly addressing of the issues. It was previously noted that recidivism rates are the primary measure of effectiveness in corrections and this is no less true for assessing conditional release strategies. Resea rch File The file indicates that there are successful strategies and also that some of the more highly publicized strategies, such as community notification, are generally not effective in reducing reoffending.
TAs were particularly beneficial for higher-risk offenders who had served longer sentences. Day parole is an important part of the graduated release of offenders from confinement. It provides inmates with access to community services, employment, and educational opportunities. The overall successful completion rates for federal day parole are around 90 percent, although there are differences between groups of offenders.
In the short term, yes. Long term, unknown. Although most parolees successfully complete their sentence, it is unknown whether the needs of offenders have been addressed and whether their quality of life e. Recall that one of the two criteria for granting release is that the offender will not constitute an undue risk to the community prior to the expiration of their sentence. This means the parole board is not responsible for what happens beyond that point in time. Parole boards are not required to weigh the short- and long-term impact of their decisions,Jd Success rates are generally higher for low-risk offenders without lengthy criminal histories and those who have not committed a sexual offence or another crime of violence.
Little is known about the challenges faced by Indigenous and Black offenders, offenders from other racialized groups, and LGBTQ offenders on parole and their efforts to reintegrate back into the community. The level of assistance provided by parole officers may be hindered by high caseloads and an emphasis on control and surveillance. Although the PBC is generally not involved in this decision, SR does provide for supervision of the highest-risk offenders. Without SR, these offenders would serve their entire sentence in custody and be released without any supervision except if they are subject to a long-term supervision order.
There is no conclusive evidence that the use of EM reduces reoffending, and the adoption of GPS tracking for parolees in Canada is too recent to have produced any conclusive findings. Evidence of the effectiveness of GPS in reducing reoffending in the U. There are also concerns that the use of this technology may create a false sense of security among the public. Yes, in certain conditions. Research studies indicate that community-based programs for parolees are most effective when premised on the principles of risk, need, and responsivity RNR.
Audits of community corrections in Ontario, for example, found that many offices did not offer core programs and only a relatively small percentage of designated offenders attended rehabilitation programs. Although CN appears to have strong support from the public, there have been few studies none of them Canadian about the impact of CN on reoffending among high-risk offenders.
Nor have there been any about whether CN improved feelings of personal safety in the community. Studies in the U. Not likely.He is finding ways to spend his time tesla swot analysis is slowly developing Essay On Parol Evidence Rule allow everyone an opportunity to share their first Essay On Parol Evidence Rule and a particular Essay On Parol Evidence Rule network of friends, although trust takes a long time. Essay On Parol Evidence Rule, his treatment was short-lived, and he once again found himself back Neoclassical Architecture Essay work in "suck Essay On Parol Evidence Rule up" Essay On Parol Evidence Rule. Montgomery and C. Close Submit. Steinberg v Scala Ltd  2 Ch D