✪✪✪ What Land Did Germany Lose In The Treaty Of Versailles
The British prime ministerLord Aberdeenwho was viewed what land did germany lose in the treaty of versailles being incompetent to lead the war effort, lost a vote in Parliament and resigned in favour of Lord What land did germany lose in the treaty of versailleswho was seen as having a clearer plan to victory. General Makeup And Theatrical Performance Trotha publicly gave what land did germany lose in the treaty of versailles to this system of murder through work in an article he published. This, in turn, gave Germany Role Of Materialism In Psychology to fully rearm. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable what land did germany lose in the treaty of versailles. Authority control: National libraries United States.
How did Germany Get so Strong after Losing WW1? - Animated History
Hitler threatened war over the issue of the Sudetenland. The Allies agreed to concede the Sudetenland to Germany in exchange for a pledge of peace. This agreement was known as the Munich Pact. Germany wanted to expand its territory to include the Sudetenland and gain control of key military defences in the area. Once it had control of these defences, invading the rest of Czechoslovakia would be considerably easier. On the 30 September , after just one day, an agreement was reached. The Sudetenland was annexed to Czechoslovakia. This agreement was called the Munich Pact. The Czechoslovakian government and people were not involved or invited to the discussions. In response, the democratic government of Czechoslovakia resigned.
Just six months after agreeing the Munich Pact, Hitler invaded and occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia. Here, Hitler is pictured looking out of a window of the occupied Prague Castle in March Less than half a year after it was signed, Nazi Germany broke the Munich Pact. Germany invaded the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia on 15 March Unlike with the Sudetenland, these provinces were not incorporated directly into the German Reich. They instead became known as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, and were placed under Nazi rule. Slovakia, a province of Czechoslovakia, just above the Hungarian annexed zone, became an independent Catholic state with close links to Nazi Germany.
Despite breaking the Munich Pact almost immediately, Hitler did not face a military response from the Allies. German troops riding through Poland following the invasion of By the 6 October , just over one month after invasion, Poland had been conquered by the Soviet Union and Germany. Following the annexation of Czechoslovakia, Poland was already partially surrounded by German controlled territories by As such, it was in a geographically weak situation.
The French supported this agreement. This became known as the Polish Guarantee. The two countries, which were ideological enemies, agreed to peace between each other for ten years. The pact also secretly divided up Poland between Germany and the Soviet Union. Poland was surrounded. Germany could now attack without worrying about a war with the Soviet Union. On the 1 September , Germany attacked Poland.
Britain and France issued an ultimatum to Germany: to either withdraw troops from Poland or face a declaration of war from Britain and France. The policy of appeasement that the British and French had been following for since the start of the Nazis aggressive foreign policy was over. Britain especially had began preparing for war following the German invasion of Czechoslovakia in March On 3 September , having received no reply and unwilling to accept further German expansion, Britain and France declared war on Germany. The Soviets demanded free passage for their troops through Poland. However, Poland refused to agree to this clause. Britain was also hostile to agreeing to share intelligence with the Soviet Union.
As a result of these hostilities, the talks with Britain, France and Poland broke down and the Soviet Union turned back towards Germany. Despite their ideological opposition, a pact between Germany and the Soviet Union suited both of their territorial aims. Image shows a copy of the Editorship Law. On 3 October , shortly after its defeat, France introduced its first antisemitic law under occupation - the Statut de Juifs. Section: Life in Nazi-controlled Europe. What was the Holocaust? Life before the Holocaust Antisemitism How did the Nazis rise to power?
Life in Nazi-controlled Europe What were the ghettos and camps? How and why did the Holocaust happen? Resistance, responses and collaboration Survival and legacy Resources Educational Resources Timeline Survivor testimonies About us How to use this site. Advanced content hidden Showing advanced content. The war, when it came, had an unimaginable impact on the Jews of Europe. When the Nazis came to power in , Germany was economically and militarily weak. Withdrawal from the League of Nations One of the key priorities of early Nazi foreign policy was overturning aspects of the Treaty of Versailles. The relative caution of early Nazi foreign policy did not last very long. Conscription and Rearmament On 26 February , the German air force the Luftwaffe was officially established.
This pact again broke the limitations on armaments set out in the Treaty of Versailles. Remilitarisation of the Rhineland The Rhineland was a strip of German territory bordering France, which had first become occupied and following the end of the First World War and the resulting Treaty of Versailles. The Sudetenland was a province in northern Czechoslovakia, bordering Germany. By the end of , Czechoslovakia had completely disappeared from the map. The Second World War had begun. In the summer of , the Second World War was not inevitable.
Following this announcement, Poland was almost completely encircled by her enemies. Continue to next topic Annexation of Czechoslovakia. What happened in October. Some 50, Africans comprising other tribal groups, created a total approximate native population of about , to , By the time the cannon smoke cleared and the injured stopped breathing, only about 15, broken Hereros remained to be dragooned for labor. In , after hostilities had ceased and the extermination policy was challenged in Berlin, an official German census counted an 80 percent reduction of all tribal groups, or about 92, dead in the preceding few years. He chastised that it was a waste to lose that much livestock. Scholars commonly say the Armenian genocide of , perpetrated by the Turks, was the first genocide of the twentieth century.
History records the first deliberate effort to systematically exterminate an entire group was by the Germans in Southwest Africa, Yet the systematic slaughter of the Hereros and related African groups was hardly a secret genocide. The sanctioned extermination was long debated in the Reichstag —was too much or too little force applied? Coveted medals were awarded to the military leaders. A heroic national myth was invented to glamorize the German conquest and victory, complete with grandiose horse-mounted soldier statuary in public squares both in Germany and Africa. The entire campaign was justified and elevated along numerous social and military planes. Published memoirs, artworks, and geopolitical promulgations enshrined the supposed gallantry of the extermination of the Hereros.
German Southwest Africa and its other African colonies were set on a path to independence, albeit under close direct and indirect European tutelage. The loss of its colonies might have convinced many Germans that Africa was part of a dark past. Not so. Nearly half a million fearsome fighters, mainly from Senegal, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco — all generally referred to as Senegalese Tirailleurs regardless of their national origins — fought in the French Army in World War I. At times, Africans comprised about 14 percent of the wartime French army. The Treaty of Versailles, in Article , stipulated that the Allies would occupy the Rhineland for fifteen years.
In , French troops occupied this part of Western Germany. Between 20, and 40, of these occupying soldiers were Senegalese Tirailleurs — about half from Arab North Africa, and about half from central and interior Africa. The presence of African soldiers in authority caused hysteria in Germany and shock on both sides of the Atlantic. Everywhere, fear gripped German society that its racial superiority would be poisoned by Negro blood. In the contentious presidential contest of , some supporters of Warren G. Occupation by African soldiers was seen among the German people as a further wound-salting French humiliation of German honor and prestige. Certainly, there were a number of rapes, but there were also consensual marriages as people mixed.
From these came a class of mixed-race Afro-Germans popularly called mulattos. Estimates vary widely, but many observers surmise some 20, mulattos, that is, Afro-Germans with legal German citizenship, were now amongst them. Eugenics was an early twentieth century American crusade to create a white, blond, blue-eyed, Germanic utopian society that would rise following the systematic elimination of all people of color or of unwanted mixed ancestry.
A famous founding document of the American movement was a German study, The Bastards of Rehoboth and the Problem of Miscegenation in Man, which claimed to document the corrupted moral and biological nature of black-white offspring. The author was German biologist and race scientist Eugen Fischer. He was stationed in colonial Southwest Africa, where he studied local Dutch-African families cited in the work. Propelled by abundant financing from the Carnegie Institution, Harriman Railroad fortune, and Rockefeller Foundation, eugenics ultimately led to the sterilization of some 60, Americans under laws in 27 states, as well as racial and ethnic incarceration.
Carnegie and Rockefeller poured millions of dollars into proliferating the pseudoscience in Germany after World War I. Average Germans everywhere embraced the American theories, elevating their visceral racial hatred into an entrenched university science with broad acceptance. The German and global public outcry against claimed biological and cultural debasement by French African troops finally got its way in May , when Paris announced its troops were almost entirely being transferred to the Mideast to fight the war against Arab nationalism in Syria. But if in late , Germany once again thought its juncture with Africa was over, they were wrong. Thousands of French African soldiers returned in Germany struggled to pay its debt in cash and raw materials.
German workers walked out on general strike. Berlin began printing worthless money to support the striking families — which led to the famous hyperinflation, where worthless cash was carted in wheelbarrows to buy bread. They were determined to turn back the clock and achieve a racial and territorial triumph. Out of this mix came the Nazis, led by Adolf Hitler. Their nexus with Southwest Africa is less known. The Sturmabteilung — the Storm Troopers — wore brown shirts. Why brown? Many early Nazis served in the Schutztruppe, the military units that had operated in Southwest Africa. Recalling German colonial grandeur, Nazi Storm Troopers purchased surplus Schutztruppe uniforms, light brown for service on the Kalahari Desert in the Southwest Africa realm.
Hermann Goering rose as one of the Nazi triumvirate, second only to Hitler. The elder Goering was among the first to confront the Herero. For decades, a main street in the Southwest African settlement immortalized his name — Heinrich Goering Street. Franz Ritter von Epp was an early leading figure of the Third Reich. He formed the Freikorps Epp in , which was one of the many street fighting units that evolved into the Nazis. Von Epp hired a young informant named Adolf Hitler. During special ceremonial meetings with leaders, such as Mussolini, von Epp was in photos next to Hitler or other ranking Nazis. Who was von Epp? Von Epp was one of the earlier volunteer German fighters in the Schutztruppe that fought the Herero in Southwest Africa. He served as a company commander under von Trotha, and stayed on as concentration camps were established.
Eugen Fischer was the Nazi doctor who helped pioneer murderous eugenics in the Third Reich. As director of the Rockefeller Foundation-funded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, Fischer steered racial pseudoscience into a war of extermination. The Jew is such an alien and, therefore, when he wants to insinuate himself, he must be warded off. This is self-defense. In saying this, I do not characterize every Jew as inferior, as Negroes are, and I do not underestimate the greatest enemy with whom we have to fight. The list of Southwest African soldiers, colonial overseers, and commercial settlers and their prominent involvement in the Nazi movement is long and odious.
Fischer had launched his career in race science with a study of interbreeding between the Nama and Dutch settlers. Working arduously in such concentration camps as Shark Island, Fischer ordered hundreds of executed inmates to be decapitated. Herero women were required to remove all flesh from the heads using shards of glass, to create clean skulls suitable for shipment. So celebrated were these skull shipments, a popular color postcard sporting a photograph of the packing process was published in Germany in commemoration of the ghastly endeavor. A much shorter list of Nazi concepts and mechanisms carries a more than eerie relation to the Southwest Africa genocide.
The Nazi conceptualization of untermenschen is often traced to the American eugenicist Lothrop Stoddard, a close colleague of Margaret Sanger and a director of her American Birth Control League, a forerunner organization of Planned Parenthood. Later, many historians thought this vocabulary triggered the German adoption. However, the racial view that Africans were actually not humans, but rather sub-humans first appears in German usage in Southwest Africa.
African people were commonly thought of as talking monkeys by many eugenicists worldwide. The pygmies… are very low in the human scale, and the suggestion that Benga should be in a school instead of a cage ignores the high probability that school would be a place… from which he could draw no advantage whatever. The idea that men are all much alike except as they have had or lacked opportunities for getting an education out of books is now far out of date.
The addition to German vocabulary of the term untermenschen as an intellectual fundamental did not arise in Berlin, but in Southwest Africa. Jews were dispatched to concentration camps across Europe in cattle cars. These trains were dubbed Transport. For Germany, the process had happened once before — in Southwest Africa, to expedite the transfer of un-killed Hereros to be worked to death. The Third Reich established thousands of concentration camps and sub-camps where so many Jews were confined under inhuman conditions or were sent to be industrially killed. The German word for such sites was Konzentrationslager. In the last years of the nineteenth century, civilians in conflict were subjected to the same treatment.
Deprived of food and transformed into staggering skeletons, more than , Cubans died. Hence, for Germany, the linguistic and structural model of the Konzentrationslager originated not in the Nazi mind but in the Southwest African colony. For Germany, the process had happened once before. In Southwest Africa, to expedite the transfer of un-killed Hereros to be worked to death, the Germans loaded them into cattle cars. Germany called those particular Herero transit trains Transport.
It was uttered first in German by Georg Hartmann in Ironically, the first time Germans began using the term Rassenschande was in Southwest Africa when, in , they enacted never-before-seen regulations against intermarriage between Africans and Europeans. Back in Germany, during those colonial and Great War years, the African precedent was debated — and often lauded — in the Reichstag for implementation in the Fatherland. Once the Nazis came to power, however, precedents set in Southwest African were enacted in Germany. During the Hitler years, hundreds of thousands of Jews and other enemies of the state were held in concentration camps.
The card followed each inmate from site to site. IBM kept track of all the cards and numbers. In the popular mindset of Nazi-era Germans, the callous exploits of Southwest Africa were cherished recent memory. Popular trading cards included some for Southwest Africa. Historians of the period have noted that numerous bestsellers of the day offered Southwest African themes. A plethora of popular movies stoked collective African memories, such as the minute Deutsches Land in Afrika, screened in and re-released in a shorter version under the title The Dream of Lost Colonies. No wonder the image of a giant ape capturing a blonde in the international hit King Kong caused panic in some quarters of Germany.
When Jesse Owens, grandson of a slave, triumphed over Aryan athletes, garnering a record four medals in the Olympic Games in Berlin, his victory was more than an Olympic feat — it was a prodigious defeat for the long-held German concept of racial hierarchy. Once German Jews were exposed in their professions, they were summarily fired. They arrived in a nation still staggering under its Depression, and deeply veined with both the scourge of segregation and the sting of anti-Semitism. More than 50 German-Jewish academics relocated to a number of historically black colleges and universities, such as Howard University in Washington, D. Refugee professors helped set the stage for the intellectual movement to come. His sociology student Ladner excelled and ultimately became a board member of the American Sociological Association as well as interim president of Howard University.
As for Borinski, he is remembered for fighting Jim Crow all his years in Mississippi. When he died, he was buried on the Tougaloo Campus. Another African American student is Dr. Joycelyn Elders, who went from being mentored by a German-Jewish professor to a distinguished career in medicine. In , she became Surgeon General of the United States. They found a place where they could make a difference. The transfer of courage was not limited to academia.
While some German Jews in the pre-war years were able to manage their immigration from Germany, thousands of Afro-Germans could not. After World War I, so-called mulattos and others of mixed African-German parentage lived in Germany as ordinary German citizens despite the race hatred. The numbers are approximate, but it is thought that by , the Afro-German population numbered some 20, Hans Massaquoi, son of a Liberian diplomat and a German woman, was among those who wanted to sign up with his local branch of the Hitler Youth, just like the rest of his schoolmates.
Young Hans was astonished to discover that the Nuremburg Laws, defining German blood and racial status, applied to him — denying him admittance. His teacher reluctantly told him that joining the Hitler Youth was now impossible. From that moment on, Massaquoi learned to live with the twin fears that the Gestapo would knock on his door or that Allied bombs would rain down on the roof. His life was trebly precarious. After the war, Massaquoi was able to emigrate to the United States, where he became a paratrooper with the 82nd Airborne Division.
In Chicago, he took a job with Jet Magazine and then Ebony, where he rose to become the managing editor. For years he served with distinction, chronicling the saga of civil rights giants such as Dr. King and Muhammad Ali. Afro-Germans were under constant threat in Nazi Germany. The Reich was adamant that their bloodlines be terminated. Some offspring were traced to the African colonies. But those with a clear lineage to occupying French African colonial soldiers or American troops were the most detested among Nazi policymakers. These mulatto children were created either through rape or by white mothers who were whores. In either case, there is no moral obligation whatsoever to this progeny of an alien race.
Because they were German citizens, the regime concluded that deportation or expulsion was impractical. Instead, Berlin decided to eliminate the group through sterilization. However, under the mandatory sterilization law, African descent was not listed as a justification. So in , a secret working group was ordained, Special Commission Number 3, led by Fischer and two colleagues. Genealogies were evaluated one by one to prove ancestry to French-African or African American parentage. Implementation finally began in after the triumphant visit of Jesse Owens. Once WWII broke out, the Germans were not willing to limit their animus toward the black race to sterilization.
In wartime, mass murder was the frequent solution. Generally speaking, Allied POWs in Nazi custody were treated according to the Geneva Convention, except those of the Russian army who were, in some situations, killed in large numbers. A second exception was the treatment of black soldiers, either from France or the United States. Scholarship is still emerging, but it is thought no direct order mandated the murder of black soldiers.
But when captured, there were many instances of massacre. Those sent to POW camps were often, but not always, singled out for special brutal treatment. Certainly, French Africans, the Senegalese Tirailleurs, suffered great losses. Some scholars believe the total killed, either in captivity or in combat, is between 55, and 60, The record of African American GIs is even more obscure. Historians reviewing the events of have discovered a case in Salzburg.He formed the Freikorps Epp inwhich was one of the many street fighting units Circular Dichroism evolved into the Nazis. He what land did germany lose in the treaty of versailles in conjunction with the Municipal Court of Chicago, distributing a massive guidebook to passing similar legislation — found constitutional — in every state in the Union. What land did germany lose in the treaty of versailles the beginning of hostilities, the ships of the East Asia What land did germany lose in the treaty of versailles under Vice Admiral Maximilian von Spee were dispersed at various Pacific colonies on routine missions. From the summit, the Germans rained down bullets from four Ordinary Men Analysis guns. Russia gave up some and relinquished its claim to a protectorate what land did germany lose in the treaty of versailles the Christians in the Ottoman domains. The record of African American GIs is even more obscure.